Tuesday, August 30, 2016

2.5 million classifications!!!

Pant hoots and Thank yous to everyone involved with Chimp&See to date - we have made it to 2.5 million classifications!!! 


(thanks to mod Jane for the screen grab at just the right moment!)

The science team was at 2 conferences in Chicago last week Chimps in Context and the Joint meeting of the International Primatological Society / American Society of Primatologists 2016 where we auctioned off a Chimp&See Tshirt for charity, gave away stickers and swag and of course presented our first results! A big welcome to all the new people we met and that have joined our C&S family!

We tweeted and facebooked some of the latest research from our science team while in Chicago, so check out those pages for some highlights too :) #IPSASP16 #ChimpSymp!


Sunday, August 14, 2016

The Chimp Olympics -- Week 2!

Welcome to Week 2 of the Chimp Olympics!  If you missed any of the Week 1 events (or just want to re-live the glory), check them out here!

Day 10:

Today's event is balancing!  It may seem like having four limbs on the ground would mean that balancing is easy, but when crossing narrow log bridges, or moving on unstable lianas, it can be a real challenge.  Watch these chimps balance gracefully (and sometimes not so gracefully) as they navigate some tricky spots.




Original videos at ACP0003lno ACP0003lc2 ACP0007gbi ACP000g4ds ACP0005wco ACP0005w6i

Thanks to moderator ksigler for putting together today's video!




Day 11:

Today's event is arm hanging!  Suspensory (i.e. hanging) behavior makes up only a small portion of all chimpanzee locomotion: in one study suspensory locomotion accounted for less than 3% of all adult locomotion.  It's more common in young chimps, and in fact there is one particular suspensory behavior only recorded for infants: arm-hang-twirling.  It's a form of play where they hang by one arm and spin their body back and forth.





Original videos at ACP0003t0p ACP0003t0r ACP000b4g2 ACP000b4g3 ACP0006t4h ACP0005wcm ACP00050a3 ACP00050a4 ACP0005wkb ACP0005wkc ACP00080v3

Sources:

Doran, Diane M. "The ontogeny of chimpanzee and pygmy chimpanzee locomotor behavior: a case study of paedomorphism and its behavioral correlates." Journal of Human Evolution 23.2 (1992): 139-157.
Doran, D. M. "Ontogeny of locomotion in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees." Journal of Human Evolution 32.4 (1997): 323-344.




Day 12:
Today's event is charging!  Like branchshaking, charging is a display done as a social signal.  Superficially it resembles galloping in that it's a running motion, but the chimp is almost always piloerect (hair puffed up), and the arms and legs are held relatively stiffly.  Charges are also often directed, either straight at or passing close by another individual, and accompanied by vocalizations.  Charging is most often performed by adult males.




Original videos at ACP00000nk ACP000cp3z ACP000cn7c ACP000cce0 ACP000bxf1 ACP000bxf4


Sources:
Nishida, Toshisada, et al. "Ethogram and ethnography of Mahale chimpanzees." Anthropological Science 107.2 (1999): 141-188.




Day 13:
Today's event is termite fishing!  Sometimes chimpanzees eat termites just by grabbing them with their hands, but they're also known to fashion tools for the job.  It requires a certain amount of skill and dexterity to select the right plant, modify it to the right length, perhaps fray the end a bit for more surface area for the termites to cling to, and place it correctly for gathering termites.  At some locations, chimps have been documented to use two different tools in sequence, first a sturdier one to open a mound, and then a more flexible one to collect the insects.



Original videos at ACP0006v7f ACP00078z2 ACP0006tdz ACP000086r
Thanks to moderator ksigler for putting together today's video!

Sources:

Sanz, Crickette M., and David B. Morgan. "Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo." Journal of Human Evolution52.4 (2007): 420-433.
Nishida, Toshisada, et al. "Ethogram and ethnography of Mahale chimpanzees." Anthropological Science 107.2 (1999): 141-188.



Day 14:
Today's event is object carrying!  Chimps carry different objects for different reasons: they may carry food to eat somewhere else, juveniles especially may carry items to play with, and most importantly, they carry tools.  Some tools that are rare or hard to acquire, like hammers for nut-cracking and particular termite-fishing tools, may be transported tens or even hundreds of meters to the site where they are used.  When carrying hammers, they also often carry the nuts they intend to open.  Chimps may carry items in their mouth, by using their hands or feet and modifying their gait as necessary, by placing them on their back or head, or even in their "pocket" -- a spot between their flexed thigh and lower abdomen.




Original videos at ACP00073j6 ACP0002ra1 ACP0002ra2 ACP000484o ACP000484p ACP000086l ACP000086p ACP0003dqg ACP00026fi ACP0007zr7 ACP0007f41 ACP0003dq5 ACP0002wbs
Sources:

Boesch, Christophe, and Hedwige Boesch. "Optimisation of nut-cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees." Behaviour (1982): 265-286.
Sanz, Crickette M., and David B. Morgan. "Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo." Journal of Human Evolution52.4 (2007): 420-433.
van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. "The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve." Animal behaviour monographs 1 (1968): 161IN1-311IN12.



Day 15:
Today's event is drumming!  Chimpanzees make use of the large buttresses of trees to produce a low frequency noise that can be heard at least 1 km away.  Drumming is sometimes part of a charging display, with the chimp charging toward a buttress, and then hitting, slapping, or kicking it, often while vocalizing.  Drumming is mainly performed by adult males.




Original videos at ACP0005a7n ACP000bjuy ACP000564a ACP000bjxk ACP000bjxl


Sources:

Arcadi, Adam Clark, Daniel Robert, and Christophe Boesch. "Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls, and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness." Primates39.4 (1998): 505-518.
Arcadi, Adam Clark, Daniel Robert, and Francis Mugurusi. "A comparison of buttress drumming by male chimpanzees from two populations." Primates45.2 (2004): 135-139.



Day 16:
Today's event is wrestling!  Just like human kids, young chimpanzees often enjoy rough-and-tumble play, including wrestling with mom, siblings, unrelated juveniles, and even adult males.  Adults of both sexes may also grapple during fights, though they usually prefer to work it out without coming to blows, by using displays, vocalizations, and other social signals.



Original videos at ACP000fxpn ACP0007h55 ACP0007h58 ACP00072fj

Thanks to moderator ksigler for putting together today's video!

Sources:

van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. "The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve." Animal behaviour monographs 1 (1968): 161IN1-311IN12.



Final day:
Welcome to the final day of the Chimp&See Chimp Olympics!  We're glad you made it this far, and we think you and the chimps deserve a rest.  Although chimpanzees can spend up to 60% of the day resting, it's not very common for us to see it on video -- immobile animals aren't very likely to trigger camera traps.  Here are a few relaxing videos to end this series!




Original videos at ACP000exy4 ACP000bmfo ACP000emjw

Thanks to moderator ksigler for putting together today's video!

And finally, a big thank you to all our C&S volunteers and mods, but especially to AnLand Boleyn Corcaroli Dana23 Eswiniarski Henrik87 hoothoot luca-chimp MingMing Snorticus tina_pixie_ Tschango and yshish, whose tags were particularly helpful in finding the videos for the Chimp Olympics!


Sources:
Doran, Diane. "Influence of seasonality on activity patterns, feeding behavior, ranging, and grouping patterns in Tai chimpanzees." International Journal of Primatology 18.2 (1997): 183-206.
Kosheleff, Valerie P., and Christian NK Anderson. "Temperature's influence on the activity budget, terrestriality, and sun exposure of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda." American journal of physical anthropology 139.2 (2009): 172-181.

Friday, August 5, 2016

The Chimp Olympics!

Are you excited for the Olympics?  How about for the Chimp&See Chimp Olympics?!  Chimpanzees can be agile, strong, and fast, and over the next few weeks, we'll be showcasing videos of them at their very best.  Check back each day for a new "event", but today we have the Parade of Athletes to start us off!






Some bonus information about today's videos: chimpanzees live in communities of about 20 to about 200 individuals, but you won't ever see 200 chimps gathered at the same time!  They break off into temporary parties that may be as small as a single lone individual or as large as a few dozen (and in rare cases even more), that form and reform over hours to days.  Today's videos show some of the larger parties we've seen on C&S.

Check back tomorrow for the first event!




Day 2:
Today's event is jumping!  Since chimpanzee anatomy isn't specialized for standing upright, they often look a bit awkward when jumping and landing.  It's possible for them to land both quadrupedally, putting down their hands and then their feet, or bipedally, putting down their feet first.  Leaping is an uncommon behavior for chimpanzees of all ages: in one study chimpanzees spent less than 1% of their locomotion time leaping.




Original videos at ACP0002itc ACP000cf37 ACP000bw65 ACP00064ot

Sources:
Doran, Diane M. "Sex differences in adult chimpanzee positional behavior: the influence of body size on locomotion and posture." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 91.1 (1993): 99-115.



Day 3:
Today's event is stonethrowing!  Chimpanzees may throw stones during play or during displays.  In some cases, they throw stones habitually against the same trees during displays -- see PanAf's first published paper for more information.  Watch the video below for some of our best stone throws!


Original videos at ACP0005652 ACP0005a6j ACP0005a91 ACP0005a9y



Day 4:
Today's event is climbing!  When chimps climb trees or vines smaller than a few inches in diameter, they grip them like a baseball bat, with the thumb opposite the fingers.  They also grip with their feet, using their opposable toes for extra control and traction.  For medium to large size trees, they "hug" the trunk and then basically walk up, placing each foot flat against the trunk and pushing to gain height.  When returning to the ground, they usually use the same motions in reverse, but they can also "hug" the trunk and slide as seen in this video from our collaborators at the Goualougo Triangle Ape Project!




Original videos at ACP0007g9e ACP000bepc ACP00071qe ACP00071qf ACP00064or ACP0007gbi ACP000ceus ACP000b03e



Day 5:
Today's event is galloping!  The normal walking pattern for chimpanzees is to move each arm in time with the opposite leg, and to place them down before moving the other arm/leg.  However, when they want to move faster, they can gallop instead, pushing off with both feet at once, then picking up both hands, becoming airborne for a moment!






Day 6:
Today's event is nut-cracking!  Chimpanzees in some communities crack hard-shelled nuts to eat, which can provide them with over 3000 calories in a single day.  Nut-cracking is cognitively complex, requiring knowledge of the location of nut trees, anvils, and hammers, plus the correct method for cracking.  It also requires precise manipulation to correctly line up the anvil, nut, and hammer, and the physical strength to strike the nut hard enough to break it open.
Sources:
Boesch, Christophe, and Hedwige Boesch-Achermann. The chimpanzees of the Ta├» Forest: Behavioural ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.



Day 7:
Today's event is branchshaking!  Chimpanzees shake branches as a social signal.  They may do it to impress a potential mate, or to intimidate a rival, or they may even direct it at another species (e.g. humans or baboons).  Branchshaking displays are most often performed by adult males, but females and even juveniles perform them too.




Original videos at ACP0002l0t ACP000b8ft ACP000cmch ACP00058bq ACP00081ir ACP0002j59


Sources:

van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. "The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve." Animal behaviour monographs 1 (1968): 161IN1-311IN12.



Day 8:
Today's event is infant carrying!  Chimpanzee newborns have a strong clinging reflex and hold tightly to the hair on mom's belly.  She'll carry the infant like this on her front usually for around six to twelve months, at which point the infant starts to ride on her back instead.  Infants don't all develop at the same rate, and it may be quite a number of years before mom completely stops carrying them.  In fact, it may be long enough that there is a younger sibling and mom carries both at once!  See if you can spot the video with a mom carrying two kids -- it's a quick one.





Original videos at ACP000gnpq ACP0007aq2 ACP0007s48 ACP0007tpu ACP00055ty ACP00077tx ACP000781n ACP0004832 ACP000cid1 ACP000cid2 ACP0004zva ACP000asly ACP000asm2
Sources:

van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. "The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve." Animal behaviour monographs 1 (1968): 161IN1-311IN12.



Day 9:
Today's event is crutch walking!  Crutch walking is a locomotion pattern usually used on steep terrain where both hands are planted, and the body and feet are swung through the arms.  It's similar to a gallop, but slower.  New moms also sometimes walk this way, keeping their infant cradled in their lap.




Original videos at ACP000bwj4 ACP000bwj6 ACP00051fe ACP000bw74 ACP0005dhx ACP0005dhy ACP000bwhk ACP00055si
Sources:

Nishida, Toshisada, et al. "Ethogram and ethnography of Mahale chimpanzees." Anthropological Science 107.2 (1999): 141-188.



To see the rest of the Chimp Olympic events, continue to Week 2!